for more than a decade parted on SUSE contains a patch to allow setting the partition id on MS-DOS. Unfortunately it was never accepted upstream. Recently upstream included an improved patch by SUSE that allows the same but with a different syntax.
So instead of using
set PART-NO type=0x42
the new syntax is
type PART-NO 0x42
The value itself is available in the new JSON output (also contributed by SUSE). As a bonus the new command also works for GPT (setting the partition type GUID).
I plan to remove the old patch in a few weeks (in Factory) since it causes trouble for at least one program. So if needed update your software.