Mailinglist Archive: opensuse (1690 mails)

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Re: [opensuse] Post installation queries (FIRST successful installation of Linux)
  • From: Linux Tyro <opensuse.bkn1@xxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Sat, 5 Nov 2011 08:35:16 -0400
  • Message-id: <CABVZ0WXTia4eChgcG3N0HWvS70f03cnXLnBBF9No+5rDd4j=7A@mail.gmail.com>
On Sat, Nov 5, 2011 at 12:40 AM, David C. Rankin wrote:

Please if you have time, step by step, let me know as like you said me
previously, I was getting but confused here in the following:--

linuxworld@linux-g34l:~> sudo cat /etc/pam.d/su
#%PAM-1.0
auth sufficient pam_rootok.so
auth include common-auth
account sufficient pam_rootok.so
account include common-account
password include common-password
session include common-session
session optional pam_xauth.so
auth sufficient pam_wheel.so trust use_uid
auth required pam_wheel.so use_uid

Here I have two lines which show, 'pam_rootok.so' - 1) auth 2)
account, is there any change required (means should I...?)

No those are fine - both are present in mine above...

So what I do, I want that ease that typing 'su' changes the prompt to
'root' without all the times giving the password. Something still
needs to be modified/changed/removed...? Since still it is asking for
the password....

My guess is that is the user the live CD created when you first ran the live
CD and installed openSuSE.

I have deleted completed this user ('linux~') and you are right since
I had to delete also one file with name something like
...'livedesktop'...inside that. However, now it doesn't matter.

What I would do is use yast to create a username
you want on your box. "tyro" sounds like a good one for you :) I always like
to create a group that is the same as the user to use as the user's primary
group.

Okay.

(this tightens security preventing files created by everyone being
owned by group 'user' by default)

This means that, group 'user' has its files different from every one
and only that 'tyro' (and the root, of course) could see (since it had
been of group 'tyro'), is it like that...?

Suppose you want to create your user 'tyro' with a primary group of 'tyro'
as well, if you want to do it from the command line, just do:

sudo groupadd tyro
sudo useradd -c "Linux Tyro" -m -g tyro -G wheel,user tyro
sudo passwd tyro

Here, should there be or not (I don't know) any gap between comma and
/ or user) But it is saying an error:

linuxworld@linux-g34l:~/Music/old superhits> sudo groupadd tyro
linuxworld@linux-g34l:~/Music/old superhits> > sudo useradd -c
"LinuxTyro" -m -g tyro -G wheel,user tyro
useradd: Unknown group `user'.

** see 'useradd --help' for explanation of the options.

now just logout and log back in as tyro. Then you can use yast and delete
the other user accounts from within yast. Then check home with

So if the above user is created (after getting created, when I don't
get the above error), this user 'linuxtyro' would have the same
privileges like that of the user 'linuxworld' (created during the
installation), is it like this....? Since it is also of the group
'wheel', the users of which have the power to run 'sudo' without being
offered a root password and switching to su doesn't prompt password
for them (after resolving that error too)...?

ls -l /home

Post if you are unsure what you can delete. Otherwise, if you only want to
keep the user account for tyro, just delete all directories except 'tyro'
and 'lost+found' from the /home directory. The quick way is:

cd /home
sudo rm -r $(ls /home | grep -v "tyro\|lost+found")

That will simply delete everything in home EXCEPT tyro and lost+found.

But what this 'lost+found' is? It doesn't get deleted..?

Good Luck!

Thanks.

Correct, but everyone in the Linux community can help you based on a
traditional root account, if that account is something line 'linuxuser' it's
just going to inject additional confusion into the mix...

Oh, 'linuxworld' (or 'linuxuser', whatever) is not the root but has
privileges of system administration, does it mean that? But even when
I go to yast (GUI), I need to enter the root's password (which I
changed after installation, since in the beginning it was the same as
that of 'linuxworld' user) and it does only ROOT password not the
linuxworld password, even though while installation, it declared the
created user as having the system admin privileges.

It's a damn good distro. It's had its share of bumps over the years, but
comparatively speaking, it is by far the best distro for all-around use you
will find.

Sure and the most important part is the good community too where
technical people can help anybody. I like SUSE.

it works, just wanted to know the basic difference, and the same when
I used ' sudo reboot' (didn't work) but 'sudo /sbin/reboot' (worked).

Oops, sorry, I include /sbin in my path so I don't have to type the /sbin
part for programs in that directory. To do the same, just edit your
/home/yourUser/.bashrc and add it to your path like this:

export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/sbin:/usr/sbin

Just put it anywhere toward the top of the file. Also, I like increasing
the size of my .bash-history file so if I ever forget a command, I can
likely find it in the last 15,000 I've typed :). Just include the following
below the path statement in .bashrc

export HISTFILESIZE=15000
export HISTSIZE=15000

I have added 'export
PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/sbin:/usr/sbin' line to the
top of the file /home/linuxworld/.bashrc and yes now it doesn't need
/sbin prefix! But I am sure it is only for this user since we have
edited only the file (.bashrc) of this 'linuxworld' user.

There are literally hundreds of things you can do with .bashrc that can
make your life much easier in Linux. Explore as you have time. One thing you
can do is customize your command line prompt to your liking. Try the
following in .bashrc as your user prompt:

export PS1="\[\e[0;37m\]\A\[\e[1;34m\] \[\e[1;34m\]\h:\w> \[\e[0m\]"

Just typed this (above) line at the command prompt without export, and
the colour of the user 'linuxworld' (written) changed to violet, what
does it mean? Is it becoming root or something like that?

and for root in root's .bashrc:

export PS1="\[\e[1;34m\][\[\e[1;31m\]\A
\[\e[1;34m\]\h\[\e[0;31m\]:\w\[\e[1;34m\]] # \[\e[0m\]"

You will need to source .bashrc again to see the change or just enter the
line without 'export ' at the command prompt. e.g.:

PS1="\[\e[0;37m\]\A\[\e[1;34m\] \[\e[1;34m\]\h:\w> \[\e[0m\]"

That will give you a prompt with the following format:

23:31 yourHostName:/home/admin/cnf>

The real benefit becomes apparent when you need to transfer files via ssh,
etc.. All you need do is copy the path from your prompt and then
middle-mouse click to paste it into the command line. eg.:

23:31 yourHostName:/home/admin/cnf>
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Oh I see.

On Fri, Nov 4, 2011 at 3:56 PM, Patrick Shanahan wrote:

this is really simple, when you type a command w/o it's path, your system
searches it's path, $PATH, for the command. It cannot find the command
because your $PATH does not contain /sbin which is a path normally
reserved for "root user", ie: require root password.

you can display your path, $PATH
echo $PATH

Oh, I see.

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