Mailinglist Archive: opensuse (1690 mails)

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Re: [opensuse] Post installation queries (FIRST successful installation of Linux)
On 11/03/2011 12:20 PM, Linux Tyro wrote:
HI,

I am very glad to say that I have installed openSUSE 11.4 finally and
with it, I am glad that I have done it (the first Linux installation).
Wow, it looks pretty cute, nice display. openSUSE is good but there
are some issues which I definitely would be facing. Step by step I am
writing it below. But before that I would thank to the creators and
developers of openSUSE.


2. Just after the installation, music player was not working, however,
I just opened the file 'codecs-kde.ymp' (after downloading it) and it
said me some warnings like that of some other repositories....(looked
to me as if it is like that....), like 'pacman' or something else and
it WARNED me that 'it could crash your system' BUT I just accepted
that (I cannot live without music!) and I guess openSUSE is made by so
skilled persons, why not to accept that warning, I did that....Now the
music is working (amarok, etc...) But is it dangerous (that something
like ...'pacman'...website..) and it was directly importing some keys
from their (I don't know for which keys it warned me...). So was it
safe?

3. I created one user during installation and gave its password. Now,
is this user [which has system administrative privileges (was written
underneath the user when I created it)] having some sort of root
powers ... or that is different? Since when I go to yast, it says me
to enter the root password and I only enter the password of this
created user (with which I log-in too) and yast works, so by default
that is the password of root also? Or different (since I didn't set
the root password and it is accepting that password..!). Or could root
password be set separately..?

LT,

Since you are obviously new to linux and opensuse, let me give you a couple of tips that will make working with linux much easier and working with opensuse a breeze.

(1) For Multimedia (Music and DVD) playing and access, you must always enable the following 2 repositories that contain the players and various codecs needed to play multi-media files:

Videolan Repository
- http://download.videolan.org/pub/videolan/vlc/SuSE/11.4/

Packman Repository
- http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/misc/packman/suse/openSUSE_11.4/

(2) enable 'sudo' and 'su' access so you can run programs that require root permission from your *normal user* account by exercising root privileges *only* when you need it. The 2 tools you need are 'sudo' and 'su':

sudo - 'Super User Do'

example: to install a rpm you have downloaded:

sudo rpm -Uvh name-of-rpm-1.2.3.i686.rpm

su - 'Become Super User' (or any user with 'su username')

from konsole or xterm, simply type 'su' and you change from your normal user to root (or any other user if you supply a username). Then you can execute or access any files needing root access and then simply type 'exit' to change back to your user.

We will configure all of this from the command line. Open an xterm or konsole window so you have a command line in front of you. (I presume you have some sort of GUI desktop in front of you - kde/gnome/fluxbox) 'alt+F2 xterm' will work. Make the window big enough that it is comfortable to you. Then become root by typing 'su' and entering the root password. (you did enter one right)

First, make yourself a member of the 'wheel' group. Use the 'groupmod' command as follows:

groupmod -A yourUserName wheel

confirm you were added to the wheel group with the following:

[07:50 alchemy:~] # grep wheel /etc/group
wheel:x:10:david
^^^^^ (yourUserName)

To set up sudo access for members of the wheel group (you), do the following:

in the same xterm (as root): type 'visudo' (that puts you in the vim editor editing the /etc/sudoers file -- always use 'visudo' to alter sudo privilege, do not edit the sudoers file by hand). Since you probably don't know vi, just do the following to uncomment the line needed:

Press:

shift+g - to move to the bottom of the file
up arrow 4 times - to the line '#%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL'
home - to make sure you are at the beginning of the line over the '#'
del - to delete the '#' comment character

it should now look like this:

# Same thing without a password
%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL

then just type

:wq - to 'write' (save) the file and 'quit'

Done with sudo! Now as your normal user, you can do 'sudo anyCommand' and run any command as root from your normal user account. (note - learn the vi editor over time, it will serve you well on ANY linux/unix system) A good cheat sheet for vim is: http://www.tuxfiles.org/linuxhelp/vimcheat.html

Finally set up su access without a password so you can become root from your normal user without a password as follows:

sudo vi /etc/pam.d/su (to open the file in the vi editor)

Now add the following 2 lines to the file:

auth sufficient pam_wheel.so trust use_uid
auth required pam_wheel.so use_uid

(copy the lines by highlighting the 2 lines above and then alt+tab to the xterm with /etc/pam.d/su open in vi and press)

i - puts vi in insert mode
'press the middle-mouse button down to paste the 2 lines into the file'
(or just retype the lines there - use arrow keys to navigate)
esc - takes vi out of input mode (and back into command mode)
:wq - write and quit

Done! Now you can su without a password from your normal user. Try it! Open a new xterm and just type 'su' - you should become root immediately without a password.

Now granted, if you leave your workstation up while you are away without a screen lock, this is a security concern, but unless you work in the pentagon, or work with a bunch of mischievous linux nuts - the real world security concern is minimal to non-existent. These tips will save you a lot of work as you build and manage your linux system. Good luck.

--
David C. Rankin, J.D.,P.E.
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